Antibiotics indirectly reduces our Immune System

NUGGET : ANTIBIOTICS are drugs that kill all bacteria – this is not necessarily a good thing. While we want to kill off all the bad bugs, these drugs also kill useful bacteria called probiotics (friendly bacteria).

Experts estimate five to 25 per cent of patients treated with antibiotics develop diarrhoea. The bacteria, Clostridium difficile (C,difficile), only become harmful and cause mild to severe diarrhoea when the other bacteria are killed off by antibiotics.

Children and the elderly who have reduced immune function are more at risk.

Solution

Researchers at Imperial College and Hammersmith Hospital in London found that consuming probiotic bacteria, such as those found in yoghurt, kefir and probiotic supplements can help prevent diarrhoea associated with antibiotic use, reports the British Medical Journal.

Probiotic supplements contain beneficial live bacteria that help replenish gut flora destroyed by antibiotics. Disruption of the friendly bacteria can result in diarrhoea, gas, candida albicans (a fungus) infection and other gastrointestinal problems.

Lesser chance of gastrointestinal problem

12 per cent of those who took the probiotic drink developed antibiotic-associated diarrhoea.

This compares very well with 34 per cent of those that received the sterile drink. Seventeen per cent of those that did not receive the probiotic had C. difficile-associated diarrhoea, while there were no cases of C. difficile among those who received the probiotics. Thus, those taking probiotics were three times less likely to get gastrointestinal problems.

Mechanism

Probiotics assist immune function by:

  • Inhibiting harmful bacterial growth
  • Promoting good digestion
  • Maintaining proper pH
  • Enhancing immune function

Probiotics produce bacteria-inhibiting substances (natural antibiotics) and prevent harmful bacteria from attaching to vaginal, urinary, and intestinal tract mucosal linings.

It also has the ability to suppress H. pylori which has been linked to stomach ulcers and may be useful in preventing acute infectious diarrhoea, urinary tract infections and in restoring vaginal flora. Sadly, our foods, especially commercially-derived meat, is contaminated with low doses of antibiotics that are often used as growth promoters of poultry, chicken, cows and pigs.

Antibiotics often destroy friendly bacteria on skin and in urinary, vaginal, and intestinal tracts. Probiotics can be used to restore the natural floral balance in organ and body systems after antibiotic treatment.

Reduction

In their study, 135 men and women over the age of 50 were given antibiotics.

They were randomly divided to receive a commercially available probiotic yoghurt drink or a sterile milkshake (without any probiotics). The probiotic drink and the sterile milkshake were given within 48 hours of the start of the antibiotic therapy. This continued twice daily until a week following the discontinuance of the drugs.

The probiotic drink contains active cultures of friendly bacteria called Lactobacillus casei,Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus.

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Why monkeys are AIDS immuned by nature?

A species of monkey resistant to their equivalent of HIV could help scientists develop new approaches to human treatments.

Bizarrely, it could lead to therapies which turn off the immune response to HIV rather than try to boost it.

Sooty mangabey monkeys do not become ill when infected, but until now researchers did not have much idea why.

However, a team of experts from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, and Emory University believe they have found two key differences in the way that the monkeys’ immune systems deal with the virus.

The monkeys appear able to generate only a low-level immune system response when confronted with an infection of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV).

They can also keep their ability to make T cells – the kind of immune cells depleted in humans with HIV.


It is hoped that understanding why monkeys naturally infected with SIV do not develop AIDS might teach researchers important lessons about the mechanisms underlying the development of AIDS in humans infected with HIV and identify ways to prevent this happening.

New insight into the mechanisms that control the number of virus particles in the blood of sooty mangabeys naturally infected with SIVsmm, the strain of SIV that naturally infects sooty mangabeys, has now been provided by a team of researchers from the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, and Emory University, Atlanta.


HIV and SIV infect immune cells known as CD4+ T cells. So, the authors set out to determine how CD4+ T cells affected the number of virus particles in the blood of sooty mangabeys naturally infected with SIVsmm — did they provide immune control of the number of virus particles or did they simply provide a place to live a replicate.

The number of SIVsmm particles in the blood of naturally infected sooty mangabeys decreased when the monkeys were depleted of CD4+ T cells and then increased again as the number of proliferating CD4+ T cells rebounded.

So, it was concluded that availability of proliferating CD4+ T cells is a key determinant of how many SIVsmm particles can be detected in the blood of naturally infected sooty mangabeys, rather than CD4+ T cells providing immune control of the virus.

Editor’s Note: This article is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.

Human immune system indirectly ASSIST Aids rather than ATTACKING them.

Nugget: Human immune system indirectly assist Aids rather than attacking them.

A team of researchers from the University of California at San Diego found that humans infected with HIV developed a strong immune response to the virus using antibodies – proteins which “tag” invading viruses and bacteria and mark them out for destruction by immune system cells.

The San Diego researchers found that while the antibodies were effective at marking out certain viruses, some were surviving.

This had the undesirable effect of promoting more durable strains.

Dr Douglas Richman, who led the study, said: “The neutralising antibodies are exerting a very strong selective pressure on the virus, and the virus is continually mutating to avoid it.

“The bad news is that the virus is always one step ahead, and the neutralising antibody response can’t control it.”

Richman hopes that the antibody response can be modified to cover a wider range of HIV, and be more effective.