[FACT] How much radiation is dangerous?

Health experts urged governments in the Asia Pacific to monitor radioactivity levels after Japan’s quake-damaged nuclear power plant exploded and sent radiation into the air.
Radiation is measured using the unit sievert, which quantifies the amount of radiation absorbed by human tissues.

One sievert is 1,000 millisieverts (mSv). One millisievert is 1,000 microsieverts.

Below are some facts about the health dangers posed by higher radiation levels:

* Japan’s Chief Cabinet Secretary Yukio Edano had, at one point, said radiation levels near the stricken plant on the northeast coast reached as high as 400 millisieverts (mSv) an hour. That figure would be would be 20 times the annual exposure for some nuclear-industry employees and uranium miners.

* People are exposed to natural radiation of 2-3 mSv a year.
* In a CT scan, the organ being studied typically receives a radiation dose of 15 mSv in an adult to 30 mSv in a newborn infant.

A typical chest X-ray involves exposure of about 0.02 mSv, while a dental one can be 0.01 mSv.

* Exposure to 100 mSv a year is the lowest level at which any increase in cancer risk is clearly evident. A cumulative 1,000 mSv (1 sievert) would probably cause a fatal cancer many years later in five out of every 100 persons exposed to it.

* There is documented evidence associating an accumulated dose of 90 mSv from two or three CT scans with an increased risk of cancer. The evidence is reasonably convincing for adults and very convincing for children.
* Large doses of radiation or acute radiation exposure destroys the central nervous system, red and white blood cells, which compromises the immune system, leaving the victim unable to fight off infections.

For example, a single one sievert (1,000 mSv) dose causes radiation sickness such as nausea, vomiting, hemorrhaging, but not death. A single dose of 5 sieverts would kill about half of those exposed to it within a month.

* Exposure to 350 mSv was the criterion for relocating people after the Chernobyl accident, according to the World Nuclear Association.

*”Very acute radiation, like that which happened in Chernobyl and to the Japanese workers at the nuclear power station, is unlikely for the population,” said Lam Ching-wan, a chemical pathologist at the university of Hong Kong.

Sources: the New England Journal of Medicine, World Nuclear Association and Taiwan’s Atomic Energy Council


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Why is there smell after rain?

A rainbow might accompany the distinctive scent after a rain shower. The vibrant colors of this rainbow set against lush surroundings, photographed near San Quirico d’Orcia, Tuscany, make it seem like an almost magical phenomenon. However, the science behind a rainbow is relatively simple as it’s just a matter of refraction, or the bending of light.

Most people notice a distinctive smell in the air after it rains. It’s frequently linked with spring, as the smell of fresh cut grass is associated with summer. You’ll find it in a lot of poetry and also on many inspirational lists of things to be happy about. But what causes it?
As it turns out, the smells people associate with rainstorms can be caused by a number of things. One of the more pleasant rain smells, the one we often notice in the woods, is actually caused by bacteria! Actinomycetes, a type of filamentous bacteria, grow in soil when conditions are damp and warm. When the soil dries out, the bacteria produces spores in the soil.

The wetness and force of rainfall kick these tiny spores up into the air where the moisture after a rain acts as an aerosol (just like an aerosol air freshener). The moist air easily carries the spores to us so we breathe them in. These spores have a distinctive, earthy smell we often associate with rainfall. The bacteria is extremely common and can be found in areas all over the world, which accounts for the universality of this sweet “after-the-rain” smell. Since the bacteria thrives in moist soil but releases the spores once the soil dries out, the smell is most acute after a rain that follows a dry spell, although you’ll notice it to some degree after most rainstorms.

Another sort of smell is caused by the acidity of rain. Because of chemicals in the atmosphere, rainwater tends to be somewhat acidic, especially in urban environments. When it comes in contact with organic debris or chemicals on the ground, it can cause some particularly aromatic reactions. It breaks apart soil and releases minerals trapped inside, and it reacts with chemicals, such as gasoline, giving them a stronger smell.

These reactions generally produce more unpleasant smells than bacteria spores, which is why the after-the-rain smell isn’t always a good one. Like the smell caused by the bacteria spores, the smell of chemical reactions is most noticeable when it rains following a dry spell. This is because once the chemicals on the ground have been diluted by one downpour, they don’t have the same reaction with the rainwater.

Another after-the-rain smell comes from volatile oils that plants and trees release. The oil then collects on surfaces such as rocks. The rain reacts with the oil on the rocks and carries it as a gas through the air. This scent is like the bacteria spores in that most people consider it a pleasant, fresh smell. It has even been bottled and sold for its aromatic qualities!

These are a few common rain smells, but there are also all sorts of other scents after it rains. There is lots of aromatic material that the moisture and impact of rain can stir up, and the moist atmosphere following a downpour is particularly good at carrying these particles through the air. So, when you talk about the after-the-rain smell with a friend, you may mean one thing while your friend is thinking of something else. You’ll both agree, however, that the air has a much stronger aroma to it after a good rain.


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LONDON (Reuters) – Once a year, every year, Professor Thomas Borody receives a single-stem rose from one of his most grateful patients. She is, he says, thanking him for restoring her bowel flora.

It’s a distasteful cure for a problem that’s increasingly widespread: the Clostridium difficile bug, typically caught by patients in hospitals and nursing homes, can be hard to treat with antibiotics. But Borody is one of a group of scientists who believe the answer is a faecal transplant.

Some jokily call it a “transpoosion.” Others have more sciencey names like “bacteriotherapy” or “stool infusion therapy.” But the process involves, frankly, replacing a person’s poo with someone else’s, and in the process, giving them back the “good” bugs they desperately need.

Borody’s grateful patient, Coralie Muddell, suffered months of chronic diarrhoea so bad she would often embarrass herself in public, and had even stopped eating to try to halt the flow.

The technique that cured her has had a success rate of around 90 percent in the experimental cases where it has been used so far. Now scientists are taking it to the next level, with randomized controlled trials to establish if it can really be a viable option when antibiotics have failed.

With rates of hospital-acquired C.difficile infection rising in the United States, Europe and other parts of the world, that could save lives as well as reducing expensive days of extra care. “There’s rising recognition of how effective this is,” Borody, a Sydney-based gastroenterologist, told Reuters.


There’s little doubt this treatment has an image problem. Feces, including important bowel flora, is transferred from a volunteer donor — screened to limit possible other infections — into the colon of the infected patient. The treatment can be administered by a colonoscope or an enema, or by the mouth or the nose.

“I used to be frowned upon and called ‘the doctor who makes people eat shit’,” says Borody, whose scientific papers have included such titles as “Flora Power” and “Toying with Human Motions.” But he is also deadly serious. One of his published studies reported that in patients with recurrent C.difficile infection, 60 out of 67 — 90 percent — of those who received faecal transplants were cured.

Alex Khoruts, a gastroenterologist at the University of Minnesota Medical School in the United States, agrees that the science is not to be sniffed at. “The data are very strong,” he said in a telephone interview. “There is no question that it works.”

Khoruts published a study in the Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology in 2009 that showed a single infusion of feces reversed the absence of bacteroides — a group of bacteria vital to the body’s ability to withstand infections with C.difficile.

Khoruts often sees patients who have taken course after course of antibiotics. As soon as the treatment stops, the infection returns. It doesn’t take much for these sufferers to listen to a new treatment idea, even if it involves feces.

“The patients I see don’t have any qualms about it,” he says. “By the time I see them, they’ve often been sick for anywhere from six months to two years, so they’re quite desperate. Nothing really scares them.”

The main aim, he says, is to keep the poo pure.

“What we try to do is preserve it as close as possible to how it was in the donor. There’s no in-between culture or enrichment. We want to transfer as much as we can intact.”

The donor feces is filtered to remove some larger particles and then “simply goes through a blender,” says Khoruts, with a saline solution to liquefy it before it is administered.

He favors methods which avoid going in through the mouth or the nose, which he says may make patients gag.

Borody’s clinic, at the Center for Digestive Diseases in New South Wales, acknowledges that using a nasojejunal tube — which goes in through the nose, down the throat and into the stomach — is not the most attractive method, but argues it is the most reliable way of killing the C.difficile bug and its spores once and for all.


Repellent as faecal transplants may seem, if C.difficile trends continue, demand could rise rapidly.

A Europe-wide study published in The Lancet late last year found the incidence of C.difficile infections in hospitals in the region had risen to 4.1 per 10,000 patient days in 2008 from 2.45 per 10,000 patient days in 2005.

The infections can have a range of consequences, from severe diarrhoea to blood poisoning, colitis and death.

A 2008 report from the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC) found that on any single day in U.S. hospitals, there could be 7,000 infections with C.difficile and up to 300 deaths.

The most commonly used antibiotic for C.difficile is metronidazole, and some more severe forms are treated with vancomycin, traditionally seen as the antibiotic of last resort. Like other bacteria, C.difficile can develop resistance to vancomycin, giving it “superbug” or multi-drug-resistant traits that make treatment extremely difficult or impossible.

Khoruts cites data from 1958, when some of the first scientific papers on the use of faecal transplants were published. That showed the death rate for patients with a type of infection called fulminant C.difficile colitis was 75 percent.

“Then if you go forward to 2010 — 52 years later, with the best current medical care and new antibiotics — the mortality is still 50 percent,” he says. “So we really can’t say standard medicine has done that well in 50 years.”


Khoruts now fears that unless the medical establishment embraces the technique, “the majority of people who could benefit from this procedure are not going to get it.” Borody says “poo is the only answer.” So why is it not catching on?

Scientific literature over half a century has documented the use of faecal transplants, but the technique has remained on the fringes of medicine. Some experts say a lack of robust trial data may be holding people back — as well as the obvious and natural aversion to feces as a medicinal product.

To try to address this, a team of specialists in The Netherlands is recruiting around 100 sick and healthy people into a randomized controlled trial — considered the gold standard in science — to see if the method can be proven.

Although the study is still under way, Ed Kuijper of the Leiden University Medical Center, one of those working on it, says the early signs are that faecal transplants will be shown to be effective in patients with recurrent, or relapsing C.difficile infections.

Tackling the image problem is more challenging; but both Khoruts and Kuijper say scientists are “not very far away” from being able develop a kind of artificial feces that might help.

This laboratory-grown poo would be like a super pro-biotic, they say, but more powerful by far than any yoghurt drink you can buy in a supermarket. It would have the qualities of donor poo without the marketing issues.

“It would be a good idea if synthetic poo would work,” says Borody. But he has doubts — and until he sees some good results with artificial feces, he’s sticking with the real thing. “We’d like to get away from poo, but it works the best.”

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[SHOCKING] Secrets behind the Nike CURSE

Speaking of the 2010 World Cup, while Paul the Octopus was busy picking the winners, several football stars were left blaming their lucky stars for their lack of success at the World Cup. A few months before Portugal’s Cristiano Ronaldo, Ivory Coast’s Didier Drogba and England’s Wayne Rooney – the star attractions of the tournament – played at the World Cup, they appeared together in a multi-million Nike advertisement called “Write The Future”, but unbeknownst to them, their future had already been written then: their teams did not make it past the quarter finals despite being favourites to lift the trophy. What’s even spookier is that Ronaldo, Drogba and Rooney – all top scorers in their respective leagues – scored only two goals between them. Could it be the Curse of the Nike advertisement? We pretty much think so.

Here are some of Nikes HOTTEST selling shoes !

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[BUSTED] Cheese Aren’t Mouse FAVOURITE Food, it is SUGAR, Peanut Butter and Cereals !!!

Who says Mouse and Rat loves Cheese ? This all Time Favourite Fact is finally BUSTED.

Cheese maybe one of the food mouse eat, it doesn’t mean they love cheese as their Favourite Food.

In Fact, Mice enjoy food that are rich in sugar as well as peanut butter and breakfast cereals. So a Snickers bar would go down much better than a lump of cheddar.

So the next time you want to setup a mouse trap, do consider using peanut butter and breakfast cereals instead. The results may turn out BETTER than using a Cheese.

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[FACT] Bad Date SECRETS,TIPS Revealed

Ever wondered why you are perpetually single, despite going on dates? It could be that you don’t really know how to navigate dating, or maybe you don’t put yourself across very well on a first date. Here are some signs that you aren’t particularly good at dating and may need to brush up on your skills.


You don’t bother getting dressed up or make an effort for a date. While you may feel more comfortable wearing any old thing you decide to throw on, it begs the question: why would he take you on another date if you can’t be bothered to make an effort and look good? Make sure you look presentable.

You’re late

Not only have you not made an effort to look respectable, but you are also running late. Except in specific circumstances, there is not excuse to be late. You have a phone, you have a watch so make sure you keep track of your time management and call if you think you’re going to be late. If it happens more than once, you sending the other person a message they are less important than you or what you were doing.

Me, me, me

You may or may not notice it, but many people rattle on far too much about themselves, leaving the other person wondering when on Earth you are ever going to be quiet. If you’re known to be a bit of a chatterbox or your favorite topic is yourself, then you may want to change your tune. Don’t let it be a one way conversation and they are the audience. You want to engage the person not bore them to death.

Table manners

You were brought up, not dragged up, so make sure that you’re on top of your table manners. Don’t pick food from his plate (unless he offers), don’t slurp your food or drinks, don’t be rude to waiters belch or anything else that you would do in the privacy of your home, alone. Oh, and your phone – just switch it off. There is nothing worse than someone who answers their phone while on a date.


Do you repeat the dreaded one-liners or rehearsed lines that make people cringe? Try to come up with original witty lines and jokes, rather than the stuff that has been heard a million times and will likely cause the person to roll their eyes at you. You’re unlikely to get a response from your advances.

You know their every move

Perhaps you check up on your date a couple of days after meeting? However, rather than make a call or drop a text like most people, you follow their every move on any social media site they are signed up to and know what they are doing, when and where. It’s a little creepy, stalker behaviour and quite frankly not going to get you another date if you’re sprung

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[SEXY] Your Lingerie,Bra,Undies tells your Mood and Character.

The colour of a woman’s lingerie could clue you in to what sort of a lover she is, according to the Daily Mail.

Red means you’re not shy but if you opt for pink, you would never take the lead – white is for willing learners. Find out what else other colours say about her.

If your underwear is white, you are innocent, but open to suggestion. (Photo: Triumph)

Red-coloured underwear means you are passionate, energetic and driven. (Photo: Pierre Cardin)

If your underwear is pink, it means you are romantic, gentle and in need of affection. (Photo: Triumph)

Nude-coloured underwear says you’re relaxed and have nothing to hide. (Photo: Triumph)

Black-coloured underwear means you are powerful but sultry. (Photo: Pierre Cardin)

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[4GUYS]Naked Sleeping improves Sex Life, Reproductive health

For the habit of fully clothed sleep, Sleeping naked like a thing that is very difficult to accept for most of us. In fact, a scientific and rational choice of Sleeping naked does have many advantages, especially for male reproductive health, invaluable.

Help protect the male reproductive function. A lot of people start to feel Sleeping naked embarrassed, in fact, the need for comfort is the human instinct, as long as comfortable and healthy in order to, dressing and undressing are reasonable.

Fast-paced modern life, the daily sleep to a resumption of the physical, to ensure a healthy exercise. A busy day, the strip while sleep is conducive to blood circulation, so that the body stretch yang accessible, and if fully clothed and sleep, especially some of the more fashionable to wear tight underwear, which may affect the blood circulation, so that yang was inhibited, For sexual function is even less beneficial. Underwear too tight, the temperature of the scrotum will increase, leading to sperm production and development barriers and reducing men’s sexuality; the same time, tight-fitting underwear will be to the genitals with a strong friction and pressure, resulting in erectile dysfunction, frequent nocturnal emission, will affect the blood circulation and normal ejaculation. Sleeping naked you can let the temperature drop testicular sperm has become more lively, naturally enhance sexual desire.

Yang abundant blood exuberant middle-aged, as well as thicker thighs, body fat than The male friends, often awoke to find the groin, inner thighs and other private office sweat more.

Sleep underwear absorbs sweat and secretions, humid and airtight the site easy for bacteria to breed breeding, for a long time have resulted in the damp heat accumulation, triggering the wet itching sores.

In summer, wet underwear into the urethra easier to increase the chance of pathogens, and even causing the urinary system and reproductive system organ infection. Choose Sleeping naked these problems could be avoided to enhance the secretion of sebaceous glands and sweat glands are conducive to the discharge and cooling the skin, replacing itching discomfort.

Is conducive to enhancing male sexual self-confidence

Traditional Chinese health advocates comfortable soft tone, often believes in Santa Claus, “a child’s point” refers to the essence of naked as a newborn child in the same pure, comfortable, open-minded attitude, which is the basis for a healthy body and mind. Therefore, choosing the nude of the most important thing is psychologically completely relaxed, first of all can be comfortable facing your own body.

men used to sleep naked since prehistoric age

Sleeping naked a kind of unfettered freedom of pleasure, clinical studies have demonstrated its efficacy in treatment of tension disease is quite obvious, for men due to anxiety and tension resulting from sexual dysfunction are also effective.

For the married life, the naked human body is the best stimulus to arouse sexual desire. Chinese people regard the concept of conjugal life are conservative, a lot of male sexual dysfunction is due to psychological stress, low self-esteem caused husband and wife to one another between the physical, sexual performance evaluations are not unrelated.

Established habit of Sleeping naked a couple pairs of each other’s body is more calm, freer sexual life, men are more easy to take the initiative in sex. At the same time, it is more conducive to reducing the marriage from the psychological barriers and differences, increase opportunities for intimate contact, to each other and more tolerance and appreciation, is conducive to the maintenance of marital relations.

Of course, Sleeping naked must also pay attention to, good health habits is the key, do not put the quilt sheet as of the close pajamas not changed or washed. The choice of bedding material on the sheets have to pay attention to comfort, soft, breathable fabric is better to avoid skin irritant, affecting sleep. In addition, if there is infection of the genitourinary system, you should not Sleeping naked.

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Blood-Sucking Superbug Stab Bacteria Prefers Taste of Humans

ScienceDaily (Dec. 15, 2010) — “Staph” bacteria feed on blood. They need the iron that’s hidden away inside red blood cells to grow and cause infections. It turns out that these microbial vampires prefer the taste of human blood, Vanderbilt University scientists have discovered.

The researchers report in the Dec. 16 issue of Cell Host & Microbe that Staphylococcus aureus (staph) favors human hemoglobin — the oxygen-carrying protein that contains iron — over hemoglobin from other animals. The findings help explain why staph preferentially infects people and suggest that genetic variations in hemoglobin may make some individuals more susceptible to staph infections.

Staph lives in the noses of about 30 percent of all people — usually without making them ill, said Eric Skaar, Ph.D., M.P.H., associate professor of Microbiology and Immunology.

“A big question in staph biology is: why do some people continuously get infected, or suffer very serious staph infections, while other people do not? Variations in hemoglobin could contribute,” he said.

If that is the case — something Skaar and his team plan to explore — it might be possible to identify patients who are more susceptible to a staph infection and provide them with prophylactic therapy in advance of a hospital stay or surgery.

Staph is a significant threat to global public health. It is the leading cause of pus-forming skin and soft tissue infections, the leading cause of infectious heart disease, the No. 1 hospital-acquired infection, and one of four leading causes of food-borne illness. Antibiotic-resistant strains of S. aureus — such as MRSA — are on the rise in hospitals and communities.

“It seems as if complete and total antibiotic resistance of the organism is inevitable at this point,” Skaar said.

This dire outlook motivates Skaar and his colleagues in their search for new antibiotic targets. The group has focused on staph’s nutritional requirements, searching for ways to “starve” the bug of the metals (such as iron) that it needs.

Staph obtains iron by popping open red blood cells, binding to the hemoglobin, and extracting iron from it. Skaar and colleagues previously identified the staph receptor for hemoglobin, a protein called IsdB.

In the current studies, they showed that S. aureus bacteria bind human hemoglobin preferentially over other animal hemoglobins, and that this binding occurs through the IsdB receptor. The preferential recognition of human hemoglobin by S. aureus is due to the increased affinity of IsdB for human hemoglobin compared to other animal hemoglobins.

The team studied staph’s ability to infect a mouse expressing human hemoglobin (a “humanized” mouse model) and found that these mice were more susceptible to a systemic staph infection than control mice.

The investigators also examined the hemoglobin-binding preferences of other microbes and found that bacterial pathogens that exclusively infect humans, such as the bacteria that cause diphtheria, prefer human hemoglobin compared to other animal hemoglobins. In contrast, pathogens such as Pseudomonas and Bacillus anthracis (the cause of anthrax), which infect a number of different animals, “didn’t exhibit a hemoglobin preference,” Skaar said.

The human hemoglobin-expressing mice will be a valuable research tool, Skaar said, because staph infects these mice in a way that more closely mimics the infectious process in humans. His team will also explore whether these mice provide a good model for studying the infectious biology of other pathogens.

Skaar hopes to utilize Vanderbilt’s DNA Databank, BioVU, to examine whether genetic variations in hemoglobin contribute to individual susceptibility to staph infections. His team will continue to study the molecular interaction between hemoglobin and the IsdB receptor, with the aim of disrupting this interaction with new antibiotic therapeutics.

Graduate student Gleb Pishchany is the first author of the Cell Host & Microbe paper. Other Vanderbilt authors include Amanda McCoy, Victor Torres, Ph.D., Jens Krause, M.D., and James Crowe Jr., M.D. The studies were supported by the National Institutes of Health, the American Heart Association and the Burroughs Wellcome Fund.

Disclaimer: This article is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Views expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of ScienceDaily or its staff.


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