Does your fish feel thirsty, pain and urine ?


The answer is simply YES. Some of them do but not all. As long as we distinctively set “thirst” differences between human and fishes.

There is also some differences for the fishes living in fresh water and sea water, and we also need to consider the possibility of the thirsty shark.

Bony fish, aka teleosts, have a salt concentration that is different from the concentration in the environment.

This also means that they live in an environment with a much higher salt concentration than is present in their blood. Their relatives in fresh water are in the opposite position.

Water usually move from higher concentration to lower concentration, a process of osmosis, through the membranes of the fishes. This, in a way, cause a constant leak of water through their body wall, gills and epithelia.

This is the part that answers the question : To replenish the lost water, marine fish is required to drink, so it would be ease their thirst. The excess salt they digest into their body by drinking seawater is excreted by specialised cells located in the gills.

While, freshwater fish, on the other hand, are unlikely to become thirsty. This is due to the fact that they live in a more dilute environment, and they have the opposite problem. Water tend to flows inwards to dilutes their blood.

The freshwater fish therefore need to excrete excess water, which they do in much the same way we do, through the fishes way of urinating…

So we can see that marine fish get thirsty and likes to drink in,
w
hile freshwater fish will do the opposite, urine the excess water out.

LASTLY, for the sharks, dogfish, rays and skateshave little or no osmotic gradient between blood and seawater. This is because they can retain organic molecules, the main ones being urea (carbamide) and trimethylamine oxide (TMAO). In this way, the cunning sharks avoid an osmotic water flow from their body surfaces, and may not be very thirsty.


Stefan Nilsson, Professor of Zoophysiology, Göteborg University

FISH does feel PAIN !

New research, however, suggests that they may, revealing that their nervous system may be more complex than we thought—and our own awareness of pain may be much more evolutionarily ancient than suspected.

Joseph Garner of Purdue University and his colleagues in Norway report that the way goldfish respond to pain shows that thesevanimals do experience pain consciously, rather than simply reacting with a reflex—such as when a person recoils after stepping on a tack (jerking away before he or she is aware of the sensation).

In the study, the biologists found that goldfish injected with saline solution and exposed to a painful level of heat in a test tank will swim to and fro in one spot when placed back in their home tank.

Garner labels that “fearful, avoidance behavior.” Such behavior, he says, is cognitive—not reflexive. Other fish, after receiving a morphine injection that blocked the impact of pain, showed no such fearful behavior.

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Dark Chocolate is healthier than green tea. Improve Sex life, Boost immune system,improved digestion…

NUGGET: Daily consumptions of 100 grams amount of dark chocolate, can have important health benefits.

Flavonoid is found to be a healthy ingredients found in chocolate. It can be found in both processed chocolate and cocoa, raw and evern dairy products.

This flavonoid contained in dark chocolate,similar to those of green tea, has long been used by traditional healers as a medicine and healing remedy.

base on the results of these some research studies into the possible health benefits of flavonoid, the antioxidants contained in dark chocolate may have the following important health benefits:

  • The potential to lower blood pressure
  • Improved blood circulation
  • Lower levels of heart disease
  • Improved function of the cells which line the blood vessels
  • The ability to defend the body against the destructive molecules known as free radicals. These free radicals are thought to help trigger serious diseases such as heart disease, stroke and even some forms of cancer.
  • Improved digestion
  • boost the immune system
  • help prevent heart disease and other chronic problems.
  • good source of magnesium and copper
  • reduce the amount of LDL(bad) cholesterol in the body by 10%.
  • improve the congeniality and sexuality
  • believe to cure malarial infections.

Surprising, this antioxidants found in most dark chocolate can be used to treat patients suffering from anemia, kidney stones and poor appetite, adding even more to the health benefits of this delicious food.

At the same time, while considering the possible health benefits, it is important to keep in mind that it contains two different kinds of flavonoids – catechin and epicatechins.

Catechins are known to be present in abundant quantities in cocoa, and in minimally processed chocolates as well. Dark chocolate in particular has been found to contain more than three times the number of catechins as green tea, making it a even more healthier that we are least expecting it to be. The catechins contained in dark chocolate are said to be able to boost the immune system and help prevent heart disease and other chronic problems.

On top of these benefits, it is also known to be a good source of magnesium and copper, which are known to help regulate the blood pressure and heartbeat.

It is also important to keep in mind that the vast majority of the health benefits attributed are limited mainly to dark chocolate, which is quite different than milk chocolate and other varieties. Those people wishing to enjoy the many health benefits of chocolate would do well to limit their consumption of light and white chocolate, and to focus instead on the delicious and slightly bitter treat we know as dark chocolate.

Fortunately for lovers of dark chocolate, the major manufacturers and wholesalers are responding to these well publicized studies by offering more and more to their customers. In addition to existing Special Dark bars, for instance, Hershey has introduced a special line of dark Hershey Kisses, as well as varieties of many of its most popular candy bars. In the future dark chocolate lovers should not have to look too hard for the delicious taste and possible health benefits of their favorite sweet treat.

Readers, please take note : Stuffing yourself with chocolates is not a healthy habit. In particular, sweetened chocolates produce a lot of calories that can increase the fat retention in your body. The healthiest chocolates are those which contain plenty of flavonoids. Commercially sold chocolate bars, besides being sweetened, have varying contents of these substances.

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Why monkeys are AIDS immuned by nature?

A species of monkey resistant to their equivalent of HIV could help scientists develop new approaches to human treatments.

Bizarrely, it could lead to therapies which turn off the immune response to HIV rather than try to boost it.

Sooty mangabey monkeys do not become ill when infected, but until now researchers did not have much idea why.

However, a team of experts from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, and Emory University believe they have found two key differences in the way that the monkeys’ immune systems deal with the virus.

The monkeys appear able to generate only a low-level immune system response when confronted with an infection of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV).

They can also keep their ability to make T cells – the kind of immune cells depleted in humans with HIV.


It is hoped that understanding why monkeys naturally infected with SIV do not develop AIDS might teach researchers important lessons about the mechanisms underlying the development of AIDS in humans infected with HIV and identify ways to prevent this happening.

New insight into the mechanisms that control the number of virus particles in the blood of sooty mangabeys naturally infected with SIVsmm, the strain of SIV that naturally infects sooty mangabeys, has now been provided by a team of researchers from the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, and Emory University, Atlanta.


HIV and SIV infect immune cells known as CD4+ T cells. So, the authors set out to determine how CD4+ T cells affected the number of virus particles in the blood of sooty mangabeys naturally infected with SIVsmm — did they provide immune control of the number of virus particles or did they simply provide a place to live a replicate.

The number of SIVsmm particles in the blood of naturally infected sooty mangabeys decreased when the monkeys were depleted of CD4+ T cells and then increased again as the number of proliferating CD4+ T cells rebounded.

So, it was concluded that availability of proliferating CD4+ T cells is a key determinant of how many SIVsmm particles can be detected in the blood of naturally infected sooty mangabeys, rather than CD4+ T cells providing immune control of the virus.

Editor’s Note: This article is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.

Human immune system indirectly ASSIST Aids rather than ATTACKING them.

Nugget: Human immune system indirectly assist Aids rather than attacking them.

A team of researchers from the University of California at San Diego found that humans infected with HIV developed a strong immune response to the virus using antibodies – proteins which “tag” invading viruses and bacteria and mark them out for destruction by immune system cells.

The San Diego researchers found that while the antibodies were effective at marking out certain viruses, some were surviving.

This had the undesirable effect of promoting more durable strains.

Dr Douglas Richman, who led the study, said: “The neutralising antibodies are exerting a very strong selective pressure on the virus, and the virus is continually mutating to avoid it.

“The bad news is that the virus is always one step ahead, and the neutralising antibody response can’t control it.”

Richman hopes that the antibody response can be modified to cover a wider range of HIV, and be more effective.

Watching PORN can cure Premature Ejaculation, experts said.

WATCHING porn movies can help cure premature ejaculation, experts said.

Sin Chew Daily reported that a man who was diagnosed with prostatitis went to seek treatment at a hospital in Guizhou, China, and was asked to watch porn movies.

He paid S$120 for the treatment.

Singapore urologist Dr Lin Fa Cai said the hospital might want the patient to masturbate while watching the movies, in order for him to discharge “unhealthy sperm”.

He said the movies used in such treatments were specially selected.

Dr Yang Zhi Jian from a men’s health clinic in Singapore said watching porn films could help as patients learn skills to improve their sex lives.

He, however, said he had never used the method before.

Another sex expert, Dr Yu Wei Siang, said the method could stimulate the production of male hormones.

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Sex, Food and pleasure can reduce stress. University of Cincinnati (UC) researchers say

Whether it’s food or sex, pleasurable activity provides more than just pleasure, University of Cincinnati (UC) researchers say. It actually reduces stress by inhibiting anxiety responses in the brain.

Experiments designed by Yvonne Ulrich-Lai, PhD, research assistant professor, James Herman, PhD, director of the Laboratory of Stress Neurobiology and professor of psychiatry and behavioral neuroscience at UC, and colleagues also indicated that the reduced-stress effects continued for at least seven days, suggesting a long-term benefit.The findings were published online Nov. 8, 2010, ahead of print in theProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

“These findings give us a clearer understanding of the motivation for consuming ‘comfort food’ during times of stress,” says Ulrich-Lai. “But it’s important to note that, based on our findings, even small amounts of pleasurable foods can reduce the effects of stress.”

The researchers provided rats twice daily access to a sugar solution for two weeks, then tested the rats’ physiological and behavioral responses to stress. Compared with controls, rats with access to sugar exhibited reduced heart rate and stress hormone levels while placed in ventilated restraint tubes and were more willing to explore an unfamiliar environment and socially interact with other rats.

Rats who were fed a solution artificially sweetened with saccharin (instead of being fed sucrose) showed similar reductions in stress responses, the researchers say, as did rats who were given access to sexually responsive partners. But sucrose supplied directly to the stomach did not blunt the rats’ stress response, the researchers say.

“This indicates that the pleasurable properties of tasty foods, not the caloric properties, were sufficient for stress reduction,” says Ulrich-Lai.

Physiological responses to stress include activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, regulated by the brain structure known as the basolateral amygdale (BLA). Rats exposed to pleasurable activities, such as tasty foods and sex, experienced weakened HPA axis responses to stress, the researchers found. Lesions of the BLA prevented stress reduction by sucrose, suggesting that neural activity in the BLA is necessary for the effect.

“Our research identifies key neural circuits underlying the comfort food effect,” notes Ulrich-Lai. “Further research is needed, but identification of these circuits could provide potential strategies for intervening to prevent or curtail increasing rates of obesity and other metabolic disorders.”

Funding for the research was provided by grants from the National Institutes of Health. The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Editor’s Note: This article is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.

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Do you know cat’s tongue has hooks, spikes that defy GRAVITY, help them to drink ?

NUGGET : Cat tongue point downwards while drinking!


What’s those spikes for ?


A cat’s tongue has a special area in the center. In the center of your cat’s tongue are papillae — little hooked, hair-like growths that face towards the back of the mouth. These strong hooks are made from keratin (the same stuff found in human fingernails).
  • Self-grooming. The hooks help clean and separate the cat’s fur. This doesn’t mean your cat won’t appreciate some help with grooming sometimes! Brushing your cat can help remove dead skin and loose hair — and help prevent hairballs.
  • Holding food. The hooks can help gather food into the mouth.
  • Hunting. The hooks can help hold struggling prey in place.Taste. Special mushroom-shaped papillae at the tip and along the sides of the tongue hold large taste buds. Another set of cup-shaped papillae sit at the back of the tongue.
  • To drink water. The spikes and hooks are used to retain some water molecules as the tongue retreat back into the mouth, taking inertia with it. Close it’s mouth before gravity take over to cause water molecules to drop back down.

[youtube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NTCxZWYlWC0&fs=1&hl=en_GB]
Cutta Cutta drinking
Video: Pedro M. Reis, Sunghwan Jung, Jeffrey M. Aristoff and Roman Stocker

Do you ever wonder how cats drink ?

No one has quite appreciated how impressively they drink. Using high-speed videos, Pedro Reis and Roman Stocker from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has shown that lapping cats are masters of physics. Every flick of their tongues finely balances a pair of forces, at high speed, to draw a column of water into their thirsty jaws.

Drinking is more of a challenge for cats than for us. They have to drink from flat, horizontal bodies of water. Even with our hands tied, we could do that just by putting out mouth at the surface and sucking, but then we have large cheeks that can form a proper seal. Pigs, sheep and horses have the same ability, but cats and dogs do not. Their cheeks don’t extend far enough forward so they have to use a different technique: lapping.

When the cat’s tongue touches the liquid surface, some of the liquid sticks to it through liquid adhesion, much as water adheres to a human palm when it touches the surface of a pool. But the cat draws its tongue back up so rapidly that for a fraction of a second, inertia — the tendency of the moving liquid to continue following the tongue — overcomes gravity, which is pulling the liquid back down toward the bowl. The cat instinctively knows just when this delicate balance will change, and it closes its mouth in the instant before gravity overtakes inertia. If the cat hesitated, the column would break, the liquid would fall back into the bowl, and the tongue would come up empty.

While the domestic cat averages about four laps per second, the big cats, such as tigers, know to slow down. Because their tongues are larger, they lap more slowly to achieve the same balance of gravity and inertia.

With these videos slowed way down, the researchers established the speed of the tongues’ movements and the frequency of lapping. Knowing the size and speed of the tongue, the researchers then developed a mathematical model of lapping, which involves the ratio between gravity and inertia. For cats of all sizes, that number is almost exactly one, indicating a perfect balance.

We eat MORE now compared to decade ago !!! Portion Size, Past VS Present

Over the past few decades, portion sizes of everything from muffins to sandwiches have grown considerably. Unfortunately, America’s waistbands have reacted accordingly. In the 1970s, around 47 percent of Americans were overweight or obese; now 66 percent of us are. In addition, the number of just obese people has doubled, from 15 percent of our population to 30 percent.

While increased sizes haven’t been the sole contributor to our obesity epidemic, large quantities of cheap food have distorted our perceptions of what a typical meal is supposed to look like. These portion comparisons, adapted from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s (NHLBI) Portion Distortion Quiz, give a visual representation of what sizes used to be compared to what they are today.

Two Slices of Pizza

Twenty years ago Today
500 calories 850 calories

Those extra 350 calories, if eaten a two times a month, would put on two extra pounds a year, or forty pounds in the next two decades.

Cup of Coffee

Twenty years ago Today
Coffee with milk and sugar Grande café mocha with whip, 2% milk
8 ounces 16 ounces
45 calories 330 calories

When our parents ordered a coffee two decades ago, they weren’t given as many size options—a standard cup of joe was eight ounces, the size of a small coffee cup. Nowadays, most of us feel like we don’t get our money’s worth unless the cup is at least twelve ounces; it’s not unusual to see thirty-two ounce coffee cups, four times the size they used to be. When made into a mocha, the morning coffee has as many calories as a full meal.

Movie Popcorn

Twenty Years Ago Today
5 cups Tub
270 calories 630 calories

We don’t have to eat those extra 360 calories in the tub of popcorn, but that’s easier said than (not) done. Studies indicate that when given food in larger containers, people will consume more. In a 1996 Cornell University study, people in a movie theater ate from either medium (120g) or large (240g) buckets of popcorn, then divided into two groups based on whether they liked the taste of the popcorn. The results: people with the large size ate more than those with the medium size, regardless of how participants rated the taste of the popcorn.

Bagel

Twenty Years Ago Today—Noah’s Plain Bagel
3-inch diameter 5-6-inch diameter
140 calories 350 calories

Because portions are now so large, it’s hard to understand what a “serving size” is supposed to be. Today’s bagel counts for three servings of bread, but many of us would consider it one serving. Larger sizes at restaurants have also contributed to larger sizes when eating at home. A study comparing eating habits today with twenty years ago found that participants poured themselves about 20 percent more cornflakes and 30 percent more milk than twenty years ago.

Cheeseburgers

Twenty years ago Today’s Burger
333 calories 590 calories

According to a 2007 paper published in the Journal of Public Health Policy, portion sizes offered by fast food chains are two to five times larger than when first introduced. When McDonald’s first started in 1955, its only hamburger weighed around 1.6 ounces; now, the largest hamburger patty weighs 8 ounces, an increase of 500 percent. And while a Big Mac used to be considered big, it’s on the smaller side of many burger options. At Burger King, you can get the Triple Whopper; at Ruby Tuesday’s there’s the Colossal Burger; and Carl’s Junior has the Western Bacon Six Dollar Burger.

Soda

Original 8-ounce bottle 12 ounce can 20-ounce bottle
97 calories 145 calories 242 calories

While the 12-ounce can used to be the most common soda option, many stores now carry only the 20-ounce plastic bottle, which contains 2.5 servings of soda. When presented with these larger sizes, humans have a hard time regulating our intake or figuring out what a serving size is supposed to be. A 2004 study, published in Appetite, gave people potato chips packaged in bags that looked the same, but increased in size. As package size increased, so did consumption; subjects ate up to 37 percent more with the bigger bags. Furthermore, when they ate dinner later that day, they did not reduce their food consumption to compensate for increased snack calories—a recipe for weight gain.

Plates

It’s not just food portions that have increased; plate, bowl, and cup sizes have as well. In the early 1990s, the standard size of a dinner plate increased from 10 to 12 inches; cup and bowl sizes also increased. Larger eating containers can influence how much people eat. A study published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine found that when people were given larger bowls and spoons they served themselves larger portions of ice cream and tended to eat the whole portion.

Prices

32 ounces 44 ounces 64 ounces
388 calories 533 calories 776 calories
$0.99 $1.09 $1.19

We Americans love to get the most bang for our buck. When confronted with a 32-ounce drink for 99 cents versus a 44-ounce drink for ten cents more, the decision is easy. You’d have to be a sucker not to go big. But our ability to get the most out of our dollar doesn’t always serve us well. Value pricing, which gets us a lot more food or drink for just a little increase in price, makes sense from an economic standpoint, but is sabotage from a health standpoint. A study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that Americans consume around 10 percent more calories than they did in the 1970s. Given no change in physical activity, this equates to around 200 extra calories per day, or 20 pounds a year.

What is normal?

Increased portion sizes give us more calories, encourage us to eat more, distort perceptions of appropriate food quantities, and along with sedentary lifestyles, have contributed to our national bulge. Unless you’re trying to gain weight, it might help to reacquaint yourself with serving sizes. The NHLBI tells us that a serving of meat should be the size of a deck of cards while one pancake should be the size of a CD. It’s unlikely that we’ll see a scaling down of food to these sizes anytime soon, so perhaps we should all become familiar with another image: the doggy bag.

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The world longest English word has 189,819 letters. All world’s longest word listing included

Yes, the world longest English word , Titin, has 189,819 letters. Titin is the largest known protein. Containing 189,819 letters, the full chemical name of Titin is considered the longest word in the English dictionary. However, some dispute if it is even a word and it is not in the dictionary.

methionylglutaminylarginyltyrosylglutamylserylleucyl phenylalanylalanylglutaminylleucyllysylglutamylarginyl lysylglutamylglycylalanylphenylalanylvalylprolylphenyl alanylvalylthreonylleucylglycylaspartylprolylglycylisol eucylglutamylglutaminylserylleucyllysylisoleucylaspartyl threonylleucylisoleucylglutamylalanylglycylalanylaspartyl alanylleucylglutamylleucylglycylisoleucylprolylphenyl alanylserylaspartylprolylleucylalanylaspartylglycylprolyl threonylisoleucylglutaminylasparaginylalanylthreonylleucyl arginylalanylphenylalanylalanylalanylglycylvalylthreonyl prolylalanylglutaminylcysteinylphenylalanylglutamyl methionylleucylalanylleucylisoleucylarginylglutaminyllysyl histidylprolylthreonylisoleucylprolylisoleucylglycylleucyl leucylmethionyltyrosylalanylasparaginylleucylvalylphenyl alanylasparaginyllysylglycylisoleucylaspartylglutamylphenyl alanyltyrosylalanylglutaminylcysteinylglutamyllysylvalyl glycylvalylaspartylserylvalylleucylvalylalanylaspartylvalyl prolylvalylglutaminylglutamylserylalanylprolylphenylalanyl arginylglutaminylalanylalanylleucylarginylhistidylasparaginyl valylalanylprolylisoleucylphenylalanylisoleucylcysteinyl prolylprolylaspartylalanylaspartylaspartylaspartylleucyl leucylarginylglutaminylisoleucylalanylseryltyrosylglycyl arginylglycyltyrosylthreonyltyrosylleucylleucylserylarginyl alanylglycylvalylthreonylglycylalanylglutamylasparaginyl arginylalanylalanylleucylprolylleucylasparaginylhistidyl leucylvalylalanyllysylleucyllysylglutamyltyrosylasparaginyl alanylalanylprolylprolylleucylglutaminylglycylphenylalanyl glycylisoleucylserylalanylprolylaspartylglutaminylvalyllysyl alanylalanylisoleucylaspartylalanylglycylalanylalanylglycyl alanylisoleucylserylglycylserylalanylisoleucylvalyllysylisol eucylisoleucylglutamylglutaminylhistidylasparaginylisoleucyl glutamylprolylglutamyllysylmethionylleucylalanylalanylleucyl lysylvalylphenylalanylvalylglutaminylprolylmethionyllysyl alanylalanylthreonylarginylserine…

It is so far the longest but technically not qualified as a word (name of a protein).

In the second place is Lopado­temacho­selacho­galeo­kranio­leipsano­drim­hypo­trimmato­silphio­parao­melito­katakechy­meno­kichl­epi­kossypho­phatto­perister­alektryon­opte­kephallio­kigklo­peleio­lagoio­siraio­baphe­tragano­pterygon is a fictional dish mentioned in Aristophanes’ comedy Assemblywomen.

It is a transliteration of the Ancient Greek word λοπαδο­τεμαχο­σελαχο­γαλεο­κρανιο­λειψανο­δριμ­υπο­τριμματο­σιλφιο­καραβο­μελιτο­κατακεχυ­μενο­κιχλ­επι­κοσσυφο­φαττο­περιστερ­αλεκτρυον­οπτο­κεφαλλιο­κιγκλο­πελειο­λαγῳο­σιραιο­βαφη­τραγανο­πτερύγων in the Greek alphabet (1169–74). Liddell & Scott translate this as “name of a dish compounded of all kinds of dainties, fish, flesh, fowl, and sauces.”

In the third place is PNEUMONOULTRAMICROSCOPICSILICOVOLCANOCONIOSIS can be found in most dictionaries nowadays and accepted as the longest word with 45 characters (lung disease).

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, “a factitious word alleged to mean ‘a lung disease caused by the inhalation of very fine silica dust, causing inflammation in the lungs.'” A condition meeting the word’s definition is normally called silicosis.

It occurs chiefly as an instance of a very long word.The 45-letter word was coined to serve as the longest English word and is the longest word ever to appear in an English language dictionary. It is listed in the current edition of several dictionaries.

FULL LISTING :

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